If during the 154th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, you watched the superb 1993 movie that starred Martin Sheen, Sam Elliot, Jeff Daniels, and Tom Berenger, you probably noticed something that may not have made a lot of sense at a couple of points in the movie.
Perhaps the best-known instance is at the 3:55:09 mark of the Extended Edition of "Gettysburg" (available at Amazon.com) where an artillery round takes out a group of Confederate troops, including the soldier holding the flag.
The troops re-organize to fill the gap, but one of the troops picks up the flag and drops his rifle. That's right – that soldier has taken his gun out of the fight!
Sounds completely crazy, right? What the heck is going through someone's mind that they would take their gun out of the fight in the middle of the Civil War's bloodiest battle? I can just hear Gunny Hartman shouting, "What is your major malfunction?"
A recreation of the 20th Maine's colors. (Wikimedia Commons)
Well, in 1863, war was much different. There were no radios. Messages were delivered by junior aides – essentially acting as runners with messages back and forth. Blue Force Tracker was 140 years into the future. But there was still the need to tell whose units were friendly, which were okay to shoot at, and where the heck all of them were.
The answer back then was to have each regiment have a specialized flag – or "colors." So, now everyone – from the commanding general to the lowest private knows which unit was where. This was important, as the Minnesota Historical Society noted, since it meant troops could rally behind them for a charge, or to fall back.
This screenshot from "Gettysburg" shows what no Civil War soldier would want to see: His unit's colors in enemy hands. (Screenshot from "Gettysburg")
That meant whoever held the colors had to have a lot of guts. He was out in the open, and he was a target. During some fighting on the first day of Gettysburg, one Confederate regiment had 10 different color bearers in 10 minutes, and lost 14 color bearers that day. The Union regiment opposite them lost at least three of their own.
The colors had such importance that many a Medal of Honor citation involved either capturing an enemy unit's colors, or saving the colors of a soldier's own unit. Given that importance, it is not surprising then, that in 1863, a soldier's logical response when a color bearer was hit would be to drop his gun and pick up the colors.