Retired General David Petraeus shared lessons learned from over fifteen years of combatting terrorists and extremists in the Middle East and Afghanistan at a forum Sept. 13.
The takeaway: even with all the US's military's capabilities, you can't "drone strike your way out of a problem."
Speaking at the Intelligence Squared US debate at New York University with the Council on Foreign Relations' Max Boot, Petraeus — who commanded US and NATO troops in Afghanistan and served as the director of the Central Intelligence Agency under former President Barack Obama — discussed what he views as the five lessons the US should have learned from combatting Islamic extremism.
First, Petraeus said that "ungoverned spaces" in the Muslim world will be exploited by extremists. Second, Petraeus said you need to do something about it, because "Las Vegas rules don't apply."
Gen. David H. Petraeus. Navy photo by Chief Petty Officer Joshua Treadwell.
"What happens there does not stay there," Petraeus added.
Third, the US must lead the charge, Petraeus said, because the US has the assets and the expertise that is "proving revolutionary" even as the military has let other countries' troops — like the Iraqi and Afghan armies — take the lead on the front lines.
"We are advising and assisting others, and enabling with this armada of unmanned aerial vehicles that a bunch of commanders in Iraq and Afghanistan and I very much sought more of," Petraeus said, adding that it's not just the hardware that gives the US an edge, but the manpower and technical knowledge of the people that deploy and operate it.
USMC photo by Sgt. Lucas Hopkins
Fourth, Petraeus said, there's a clear paradox at play when combating extremist movements — like the Islamic State or al-Qaeda — that are explicitly linked to ideology.
"You cannot counter terrorists like the Islamic State and al-Qaeda with just counterterrorist force operations," Petraeus said. "You can't just drone strike or Delta Force raid your way out of this problem. It takes a comprehensive approach."
The comprehensive approach Petraeus advocated involves not only targeted raids and drone strikes, but a coordinated effort among military, diplomatic, and intelligence channels to change "hearts and minds," impose the "rule of law," and work towards reconciliation between opposing sides.
And fifth, Petraeus said, is understanding that these conflicts are "generational struggles," and they're not going to be solved in a year, or even a decade.
A US Soldier assigned to 1st Battalion, 10th Special Forces Group salutes his fellow Soldiers while jumping out of a C-130 Hercules aircraft over a drop zone. Army photo by Visual Information Specialist Jason Johnston
"It's going to require a sustained commitment," Petraeus said. "And in view of that, it has to be a sustainable sustained commitment."
After Boot asked whether President Donald Trump's administration was up to the task, Petraeus parried that the "generals" within the White House are highly experienced.
Specifically referring to H.R. McMaster, Trump's national security adviser, and Ricky Waddell, McMaster's deputy, Petraeus said they understand the complexities of prosecuting the war against Islamic extremists.
"These generals know that every problem out there is not a nail, and you just can't find a bigger hammer," Petraeus said. "In fact, you generally need a stiletto."
Petraeus did say that the state of the US's diplomatic corps — with many crucial positions at the State Department still unfilled, or with acting leaders — is "definitely a big concern," adding that it "carries much more weight" to have the Senate confirm people to those positions.